ice age. gold. Papal visit Trump

Trump failed to recover the gold stolen from Native Americans.Declare war on the Vatican

Move to Hawaii – safer in SHTF global warming or SHTF global cooling.
The best weather in normal times far from most problems.

Ignore online blogs with fuzzy graphics, fonts, etc.
Indicates an idiot blog writer too stupid to lie convincingly.
Smart people can make money honestly and don’t need to waste time on blogs that only dupes read.
Computers have been making sharp clear scientific graphics for decades.
Get the raw data and do the graphics yourself.
No need to put up with bullshit nowadays.

Read The Great Extinctions by Norman MacLeod
Very colorful detailed short book, useful, on genuine paper.
Says that most extinctions are involved with global cooling.

Warm helps plants and animals grow that are needed for food and life.
Cold, freezing kills off food sources; kills plants; kills animals; grows ice caps; shrinks oceans; and leads to droughts and desertification of inner continental areas.

Currently living species represent only 1% of all species that have lived.
It is estimated that less than 5% of all fossils species are known to man.

Stage level extinction looks at the percent of species lost
While the big five extinctions are evident,
Some 95 % of all extinctions have happened at other than the big five events

Proximate extinction mechanisms are the conditions that cause extinctions such as global cooling or sea level change,
while ultimate extinction mechanisms are those that induce the change such as volcanoes or asteroid hits.

Proximate Extinction mechanisms:

– Global cooling is increased by variation in solar radiation, atmospheric composition (reduction in greenhouse gases) and cloud cover.
An increase in cloud cover increases the earth’s albedo reflecting more radiation back into space.
Low sea levels are cooling as the oceans absorb radiation.

– Sea-level change occurs as the amount of glaciation changes, but also as a result of plate tectonics where swelling of the mid-ocean ridges reduces the volume of the ocean basins.
Continentality occurs when lower sea levels expose more land which heats more readily, increasing the dryness of the isolated interiors.

– Marine anoxia when the pycocline, separating the upper well oxygenated waters from the lower less oxygenated waters, is strengthened by temperature or salinity differences.
Rising sea levels can expose continental shelves to low oxygen waters, leading to the extinction of species adapted to greater oxygen levels.

– Atmospheric circulation strongly influences heat and precipitation patterns, and can be changed by mountain uplift, extensive icefields and large volcanic eruptions.
Ocean circulation is governed by the shape of the ocean basins These circulations affect the distribution of anoxic bottom water.

Ultimate Extinction mechanisms include variation in solar radiation, plate tectonics, volcanism, meteor, comet and asteroid impacts.

The Pre-cambrian Extinction

Cambrian Biomere Extinctions –
Sea level change and anoxia are best supported as the mechanisms for these extinctions.

End-Ordovician Extinctions –
a period of warm climate, but low oxygen levels.
It is generally thought that the proximate cause was sudden glaciation and possible changes to deep oceanic water circulation bringing anoxic water into the shallows.
The glaciation lasted a short 500,000 years before returning to a warm climate creating a strong oceanic thermocline again driving anoxic water into the continental shelves.

Late Devonian Extinctions –
Proximate causes appear to be sea level rise, global cooling and anoxia.
Ultimate causes include inconclusive suggestions of bolide impact and Volcanic
However, the late extinction appears to have been a result of extensive glaciation

Late Permian Extinctions – span an interval of about 5 million years.
The sea level rose at at moderate pace through the late Permian and are not considered a proximate cause.
Evidence exists of high temperatures due to continentality, and of marine anoxia.
As to ultimate causes, The prime suspect are the Siberian Traps which extruded basaltic lava.

Late Triassic Extinctions –
While the sea level rose gradually through the Triassic due to continental movement, it dropped sharply toward the end
Black shales indicate the spread of oxygen poor oceanic water over the continental shelves.
While the Guarda crater in Portugal is dated to the late Triassic, there is little other evidence of it having a role in this extinction.
Extensive volcanism occurred in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) at the end of the Triassic and put further stress on the biosphere.

End-Cretaceous Extinctions –
80 percent of the activity occurred over as little as 50,000 years at the end of the Cretaceous.
Proximate extinction mechanisms are generally considered to be cooling and ozone depletion due to the volcanism.
There is a difference of opinion in the scientific community as to whether the Chicxulub impact was a cause of the Cretaceous extinction.

Palaeogene Extinctions –
While cooler tan the Cretaceous, climates were warmer than today.
At the end of the Palaeocene, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) occurred.
Temperatures fell in the late Eocene, as did the sea level (100 m).
Both extremes produced extinctions.
The south polar ice-cap formed in the late Eocene.
The separation of Antarctica and the establishment of deep water currents resulted in long term cooling.
Volcanism in the was a second factor.

Neogene and Quaternary Extinctions –
The Pleistocene was characterized by very cold temperatures and extensive glaciation, with warmer periods termed the interglacials.
The Milankovitch Cycles produce a 100,000 year periodic variation in climate that are evident over the past 400,000 years.
While overall extinctions were low, megafaunal extinctions were
70 percent in North America,
80 percent in South America,
81 percent in Australia,
but few in Europe and Asia.
The climate change hypothesis sees the cause as physical and biotic changes to the environment.
The overkill hypothesis sees the cause as human hunting and habitat changes

Modern Extinctions –
While it appears that modern extinctions are greater than historical,
largely due to human disruption of the environment,
they fall short of the great extinctions where entire categories of habitat were destroyed.

In conclusion,
The Single Cause (SC) concept of extinction has given way to the Multiple Interacting Causes (MIC) concept.
Sea level change and Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanic events correlate well with extinction intensities, while bolide impacts do not.

Bob wrote:

POTUS just visited Jerusalem, Riyadh and Rome.
The Pope told POTUS to “wise up” and get with the program.
Look for a rematch of the Pope vs Galileo in 1633.
Data vs Authority or Science vs Religion.
Puzzling to me how two groups claiming “science” can look at the identical data set and draw opposite conclusions!
Pope Francis gave Trump 2015 encyclical on climate change

Pope Francis’s encyclical on ecology, Laudato Si, says that “climate change” is mainly “a result of human activity.” [2% vs 98% — WTF?]


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