I walked and waded 60 miles this week and drove 222 miles. I prefer walking. Great fall weather.
Rich 1% push emperors around, even gods on white horses.
Middle east wars boost profits for the military industrial complex that builds equipment for both sides of the war. USA taxpayer pay for both sides of the war. $1 trillion cash lost overseas. Many trillions more in demand deposits and derivatives.
Wars are getting cheaper due to deflation. So more and more wars are coming — affordable recreation for news junkies delivered free on the internet, TV, radio.
MATSUE, Japan — Before Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, Emperor Hirohito criticized plans to go to war with the United States as “self-destructive” and opposed an alliance with Nazi Germany, though he did little to stop the war that Japan waged in his name, according to the long-awaited official history of his reign released on Tuesday.
The 12,000-page history of Hirohito, who was emperor from 1926 to 1989, including during World War II, also shows him exulting over the victories of his armies in China.
Despite its length and some new details, the report contains little that will surprise historians or challenge the established view that Hirohito had little say in Japan’s decision to go to war, according to the Japanese news media, which had first access to the report. It also confirms the dominant view that Hirohito was reluctant to go to war with the United States.
The most controversial aspect of the report appears to be the fact that it took the Imperial Household Agency almost a quarter of a century to release its official history of Hirohito, who died in 1989 at age 87. The agency, which manages the affairs of the imperial family, explained the delay by saying it took time to put together the 61-volume history from 3,152 documents and records, some of them never previously made public.
Emperor Hirohito of Japan, whose official history was released on Tuesday, saluted during a 1937 military review in Tokyo.CreditAssociated Press
The delay is also widely attributed to the sensitivity of the subject in Japan, which has not fully come to terms with its actions during the war or with Hirohito’s responsibility for it.
While Hirohito was revered as a living god by Japan’s soldiers and citizens, most historians portray him as largely a powerless figurehead. At the same time, the emperor was criticized for letting himself be used as a spiritual symbol for Japanese militarism, presiding over the meetings of political and military leaders at which decisions to go to war were made, and reviewing military parades atop his white horse.
The official history was released at a time of renewed focus, both within Japan and among its neighbors, on how Japan’s wartime behavior should be remembered. In Japan, nationalists have grown more outspoken in demanding more positive portrayals of Japan’s actions, saying that Japan’s empire-building was not so different from that of Western nations. At the same time, China and South Korea, two victims of Japanese imperial ambitions in the early 20th century, have accused Japan of trying to whitewash the darker episodes of its past.
While the agency’s official history of Hirohito was long awaited by scholars, it failed to contain some hoped-for material, such as records of several meetings between the emperor and Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the commander of the American-led occupation forces after the war, who decided against putting Hirohito on trial as a war criminal. Instead, it contained information only about the two leaders’ first meeting, on Sept. 27, 1945, that had already been made public in the past, according to the news agency Kyodo News.
In delving into Hirohito’s views of the war, the report said that in the time before the Japanese Navy’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, he said that Japan had no chance of winning a war with the United States, Kyodo reported. “It is nothing less than a self-destructive war,” the emperor was quoted as saying on July 31, 1941.
The discussion was part of a broader debate that started in the 1930s about whether Japan, a fast-expanding colonial empire, should be gearing up for a possible future war with the United States in the Pacific or the Soviet Union on the Asian mainland.
In 1939, the emperor also criticized the army minister at the time for wanting to strengthen ties with Nazi Germany, according to Kyodo, which said the emperor favored greater cooperation with the United States. Japan eventually joined the Axis alliance with Germany and Italy.
The official history is currently available only for limited viewing by the public, though the Imperial Household Agency plans to publish it in stages over the next five years, Kyodo said.